Linux Kernel Debugging and Security (LFD440)

Seminarinformationen

Seminar - Ziel

This instructor-led course focuses on the important tools used for debugging and monitoring the kernel, and how security features are implemented and controlled.

This four day course includes extensive hands-on exercises and demonstrations designed to give you the necessary tools to develop and debug Linux kernel code.

Teilnehmer - Zielgruppe

This course is for experienced developers who need to understand the methods and internal infrastructure of the Linux kernel.

Kurs - Voraussetzungen

To make the most of this course, you should:

  • Be proficient in the C programming language.
  • Be familiar with basic Linux (UNIX) utilities such as ls, grep and tar.
  • Be comfortable using any of the available text editors (e.g. emacs, vi, etc.).
  • Experience with any major Linux distribution is helpful but not strictly required.
  • Have experience equivalent to having taken LFD420: Linux Kernel Internals and Development.

Pre-class preparation material will be provided before class.

Seminardauer

  • 4 Tage
  • 09:00 Uhr bis 17:00 Uhr

Schulungsunterlagen

  • nach Absprache

Seminar-Inhalt / Agenda

Introduction

  • Objectives
  • Who You Are
  • The Linux Foundation
  • Linux Foundation Training
  • Certification Programs and Digital Badging
  • Linux Distributions
  • Platforms
  • Preparing Your System
  • Using and Downloading a Virtual Machine
  • Things change in Linux
  • Documentation and Links

Preliminaries

  • Procedures
  • Kernel Versions
  • Kernel Sources and Use of git

How to Work in OSS Projects **

  • Overview on How to Contribute Properly
  • Stay Close to Mainline for Security and Quality
  • Study and Understand the Project DNA
  • Figure Out What Itch You Want to Scratch
  • Identify Maintainers and Their Work Flows and Methods
  • Get Early Input and Work in the Open
  • Contribute Incremental Bits, Not Large Code Dumps
  • Leave Your Ego at the Door: Don’t Be Thin-Skinned
  • Be Patient, Develop Long Term Relationships, Be Helpful

Kernel Features

  • Components of the Kernel
  • User-Space vs. Kernel-Space
  • What are System Calls?
  • Available System Calls
  • Scheduling Algorithms and Task Structures
  • Process Context
  • Labs

Monitoring and Debugging

  • Debuginfo Packages
  • Tracing and Profiling
  • sysctl
  • SysRq Key
  • oops Messages
  • Kernel Debuggers
  • debugfs
  • Labs

The proc Filesystem **

  • What is the proc Filesystem?
  • Creating and Removing Entries
  • Reading and Writing Entries
  • The seq file Interface **
  • Labs

kprobes

  • kprobes
  • kretprobes
  • SystemTap **
  • Labs

Ftrace

  • What is ftrace?
  • ftrace, trace-cmd and kernelshark
  • Available Tracers
  • Using ftrace
  • Files in the Tracing Directory
  • Tracing Options
  • Printing with trace printk()
  • Trace Markers
  • Dumping the Buffer
  • trace-cmd
  • Labs

Perf

  • What is perf?
  • perf stat
  • perf list
  • perf record
  • perf report
  • perf annotate
  • perf top
  • Labs

eBPF

  • BFP
  • eBPF
  • Installation
  • bcc Tools
  • bpftrace
  • Labs

Crash

  • Crash
  • Main Commands
  • Labs

Kernel Core Dumps

  • Generating Kernel Core Dumps
  • kexec
  • Setting Up Kernel Core Dumps
  • Labs

Virtualization**

  • What is Virtualization?
  • Rings of Virtualization
  • Hypervisors

QEMU

  • What is QEMU?
  • Emulated Architectures
  • Image Formats
  • Third Party Hypervisor Integration
  • Labs

Linux Kernel Debugging Tools

  • Linux Kernel (built-in) tools and helpers
  • kdb
  • qemu+gdb
  • kgdb: hardware+serial+gdb
  • Labs

Embedded Linux**

  • Embedded and Real Time Operating Systems
  • Why Use Linux?
  • Making a Small Linux Environment
  • Real Time Linuxes

Notifiers**

  • What are Notifiers?
  • Data Structures
  • Callbacks and Notifications
  • Creating Notifier Chains
  • Labs

CPU Frequency Scaling**

  • What is Frequency and Voltage Scaling?
  • Notifiers
  • Drivers
  • Governors
  • Labs

Netlink Sockets**

  • What are netlink Sockets?
  • Opening a netlink Socket
  • netlink Messages
  • Labs

Introduction to Linux Kernel Security

  • Linux Kernel Security Basics
  • Discretionary Access Control (DAC)
  • POSIX ACLs
  • POSIX Capabilities
  • Namespaces
  • Linux Security Modules (LSM)
  • Netfilter
  • Cryptographic Methods
  • The Kernel Self Protection Project

Linux Security Modules (LSM)

  • What are Linux Security Modules?
  • LSM Basics
  • LSM Choices
  • How LSM Works
  • An LSM Example: Tomoyo

SELinux

  • SELinux
  • SELinux Overview
  • SELinux Modes
  • SELinux Policies
  • Context Utilities
  • SELinux and Standard Command Line Tools
  • SELinux Context Inheritance and Preservation**
  • restorecon**
  • semanage fcontext**
  • Using SELinux Booleans**
  • getsebool and setsebool**
  • Troubleshooting Tools
  • Labs

AppArmor

  • What is AppArmor?
  • Checking Status
  • Modes and Profiles
  • Profiles
  • Utilities

Netfilter

  • What is netfilter?
  • Netfilter Hooks
  • Netfilter Implementation
  • Hooking into Netfilter
  • Iptables
  • Labs

The Virtual File System

  • What is the Virtual File System?
  • Available Filesystems
  • Special Filesystems
  • The tmpfs Filesystem
  • The ext2/ext3 Filesystem
  • The ext4 Filesystem
  • The btrfs Filesystem
  • Common File Model
  • VFS System Calls
  • Files and Processes
  • Mounting Filesystems

Filesystems in User-Space (FUSE)**

  • What is FUSE?
  • Writing a Filesystem
  • Labs

Journaling Filesystems**

  • What are Journaling Filesystems?
  • Available Journaling Filesystems
  • Contrasting Features
  • Labs

Closing and Evaluation Survey

  • Evaluation Survey

Kernel Architecture I

  • UNIX and Linux **
  • Monolithic and Micro Kernels
  • Object-Oriented Methods
  • Main Kernel Tasks
  • User-Space and Kernel-Space

Kernel Programming Preview

  • Error Numbers and Getting Kernel Output
  • Task Structure
  • Memory Allocation
  • Transferring Data between User and Kernel Spaces
  • Linked Lists
  • Jiffies
  • Labs

Modules

  • What are Modules?
  • A Trivial Example
  • Compiling Modules
  • Modules vs Built-in
  • Module Utilities
  • Automatic Loading/Unloading of Modules
  • Module Usage Count
  • Module Licensing
  • Exporting Symbols
  • Resolving Symbols **
  • Labs

Kernel Architecture II

  • Processes, Threads, and Tasks
  • Kernel Preemption
  • Real Time Preemption Patch
  • Labs

Kernel Configuration and Compilation

  • Installation and Layout of the Kernel Source
  • Kernel Browsers
  • Kernel Configuration Files
  • Kernel Building and Makefiles
  • initrd and initramfs
  • Labs

Kernel Style and General Considerations

  • Coding Style
  • Using Generic Kernel Routines and Methods
  • Making a Kernel Patch
  • sparse
  • Using likely() and unlikely()
  • Writing Portable Code, CPU, 32/64-bit, Endianness
  • Writing for SMP
  • Writing for High Memory Systems
  • Power Management
  • Keeping Security in Mind
  • Labs

Race Conditions and Synchronization Methods

  • Concurrency and Synchronization Methods
  • Atomic Operations
  • Bit Operations
  • Spinlocks
  • Seqlocks
  • Disabling Preemption
  • Mutexes
  • Semaphores
  • Completion Functions
  • Read-Copy-Update (RCU)
  • Reference Counts
  • Labs

Virtual Memory Management

  • Systems With and Without MMU and the TLB
  • Memory Addresses
  • High and Low Memory
  • Memory Zones
  • Special Device Nodes
  • NUMA
  • Paging
  • Page Tables
  • page structure
  • Labs

Memory Allocation

  • Requesting and Releasing Pages
  • Buddy System
  • Slabs and Cache Allocations
  • Memory Pools
  • kmalloc()
  • vmalloc()
  • Early Allocations and bootmem()
  • Memory Defragmentation
  • Labs

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